Set in a green valley surrounded by mountains, Nazca would be just like any other anonymous desert oasis were it not for the discovery of a series of strange lines etched on the plains to the north. Cut into the stony desert are large numbers of lines, not only parallels figures but also a killer whale, a monkey, birds, a spider and a tree. The lines which can be best appreciated from the air are located above the Ingenio Valley. The Nazca lines were etched on the pampa sands by the Nazca people. It’s estimated that they were begun around 400 before Christ and continued to be made for perhaps another thousand years. Since they were first spotted from the air 70 years ago, their meaning, function and origin have tormented scientists around the world. By the 1950s Maria Reiche, inspired by Kosok, was mapping the area and discovered giant animals too vast to be appreciated from the ground. Her many years of research led her to the conclusion that the lines where huge astronomical calendar. Other theories are that the Nazca designs were part of a giant running track. Another suggestion they represent weaving patterns and yarns.